EFRA Newsletter

The EFRA Newsletter, December 2014 edition, is  published. pdf format: click here

Two PhD dissertations


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Flame retardant and dyeing treatment of cellulose fabrics using a combined “grafting from” and PIGP process

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A Green and Renewable Intumescent Flame Retardant System for Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate

This paper was published in Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. journal: 

Chitosan/Phytic Acid Polyelectrolyte Complex: A Green and Renewable Intumescent Flame Retardant System for Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer


We describe the preparation and characterization of a green and renewable polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) containing phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon elements, based on the ionic complexation between chitosan and phytic acid. Introduction of this PEC to ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) leads to an improvement of the flame retardancy. As for the EVA/PEC composites with 20.0 wt % of PEC (EVA/20PEC), the char residue at 600 oC is 12 wt % higher than that of the pristine EVA under nitrogen atmosphere. Compared to the pristine EVA, the peak heat release rate and total heat release of EVA/20PEC show 249 W g-1 and 5.6 kJ g-1 decreases, respectively. The char residue of EVA/20PEC is full and compact, demonstrating excellent intumescent effect. Introduction of this PEC also contributes to a slight increase of the Young’s modulus while maintains the excellent ductility. This work provides a new approach for the development of environmentally friendly intumescent flame retardant system.

Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Polymer Composites Exposed to Fire

Dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

pdf format of this dissertation

One of the most critical issues for Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) in naval applications is the structural performance of composites at high temperature such as that experienced in a fire. A three-dimensional model including the effect of orthotropic viscoelasticity and decomposition is developed to predict the thermo-mechanical behavior and compressive failure of polymer matrix composites (PMCs) subjected to heat and compressive load. An overlaid element technique is proposed for incorporating the model into commercial finite element software ABAQUS. The technique is employed with the user subroutines to provide practicing engineers a convenient tool to perform analysis and design studies on composite materials subjected to combined fire exposure and mechanical loading.
The resulting code is verified and validated by comparing its results with other numerical results and experimentally measured data from the one-sided heating of composites at small (coupon) scale and intermediate scale. The good agreement obtained indicates the capability of the model to predict material behavior for different composite material systems with different fiber stacking sequences, different sample sizes, and different combined thermo-mechanical loadings.
In addition, an experimental technique utilizing Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is developed to manufacture PMCs with a hypodermic needle inserted for internal pressure measurement. One-sided heating tests are conducted on the glass/vinyl ester composites to measure the pressure at different locations through thickness during the decomposition process. The model is employed to simulate the heating process and predict the internal pressure due to the matrix decomposition. Both predicted and measured results indicate that the range of the internal pressure peak in the
designed test is around 1.1-1.3 atmosphere pressure. Download pdf formatn and read more

A review of fire blocking technologies for soft furnishings

A review by Shonali Nazaré and Rick D Davis

       Download this review,  pdf document, click here

Pinfa Newsletter N°44

Pinfa Newsletter N°44 , August edition is now available, click here.

Flame Retardant markets to 2018

Please find here a new document about “Flame Retardant markets to 2018” : PDF

Source: Roskill

Sans titre


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