Synthesis of mesoporous silica@Co-Al layered double hydroxide spheres: layer-by-layer method and their effects on the flame retardancy of epoxy resins

This  paper wes published in ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, July 25, 2014.

Hierarchical mesoporous silica@Co-Al layered double hydroxide (m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH) spheres were prepared through a layer by layer assembly process, in order to integrate their excellent physical and chemical functionalities. TEM results depicted that, due to the electrostatic potential difference between m-SiO2 and Co-Al LDH, the synthetic m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH hybrids exhibited that m-SiO2 spheres were packaged by the Co-Al LDH nanosheets. Subsequently, the m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH spheres were incorporated into epoxy resin (EP) to prepare specimens for investigation of their flame-retardant performance. Cone results indicated that m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH incorporated obviously improved fire retardant of EP. A plausible mechanism of fire retardant was hypothesized based on the analyses of thermal conductivity, char residues and pyrolysis fragments. Labyrinth effect of m-SiO2 and formation of graphitized carbon char catalyzed by Co-Al LDH play pivotal roles in the flame retardance enhancement.

Sustainable Flame Retardant Technical Textile from Recycled Polyester (SUPERTEX)

The textile industry represents and important source of income and employment in Europe:

in 2005 the EU textile and clothing industry counted 155,000 enterprises employing more than 2.2 million people. Most of the production steps involved in the textile chain are not sustainable processes since they are chemicals consuming processes – such as finishing processes – and they are responsible for the production of large amount of waste, either wastewater and landfill waste. SUPERTEX project is aimed at demonstrating that a secondary raw material such as recycled Polyester (RPET) can be exploited within the Textile Industry for the fabrication of environmentally sustainable, high added value Technical Textile products.

Main objectives are: demonstration of the transferability of the production processes for PET multifilament yarns (MY) to RPET and recycled PET-polyolefin blends from post-industrial and post-consumer waste; addition of new functionalities (fire resistance) to the RPET-based MY; first application of RPET-based MY in the fabrication of textile structures for Mobiltech and Hometech markets.


A wide usage of a waste materials, such as PET for the production of multifilament yarns, mainly applied in the Technical Textile sector.


  • Demonstration of the transferability of the production processes for PET multifilament yarns (MY) to RPET and recycled PET-polyolefin blends from post-industrial and post-consumer waste. A marketable price in the range 2.0 – 3.0 €/kg is expected
  • A production technology for a range of textile materials based on RPET MY with different fineness, mechanical and functional properties, and performance comparable or better than conventional products from virgin polymer
  • Production of Flame Retardant (FR) textile by using safer products then the conventional products (alternative to antimony and halogenated compounds will be used)
  • A significant impact of the RPET MY textile is expected both upstream (RPET feedstock global market) and downstream (Technical Textile market) through replacement of virgin PET and other polymers….Read more


Effect of complex flame retardant on the thermal decomposition of natural fiber :

Natural fiber is a renewable resource characterized by its low cost and environmental friendliness. However, flame retardant properties are one of the biggest limitations for the preparation of composite materials that need to be improved. In this work, a novel complex flame retardant consisting of aluminum hydroxide (ALH) and decarbromine diphenyl oxide (PBDE) was proposed to inhibit the thermal decomposition… Read more: click here

Component ratio effects of hyperbranched triazine compound and APP in flame-retardant polypropylene composites

This article was published in Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 3 JUN 2014.


A hyperbranched derivative of triazine group (EA) was synthesized by elimination reaction between ethylenediamine and cyanuric chloride. The different-mass-ratio EA and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) were mixed and blended with polypropylene (PP) in a constant amount (25%) to prepare a series of EA/APP/PP composites. The component ratio effect of EA/APP on the flame-retardant property of the EA/APP/PP composites was investigated using the limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning (UL-94), and cone calorimetry tests. Results indicated that the EA/APP/PP (7.50/17.50/75.00) composite with the appropriate EA/APP mass ratio had the highest LOI, UL94 V-0 rating, lowest heat release rate, and highest residue yield.

These results implied that the appropriate EA/APP mass ratio formed a better intumescent flame-retardant system and adequately exerted their synergistic effects. Furthermore, average effective combustion heat values revealed that EA/APP flame retardant possessed the gaseous-phase flame-retardant effect on PP. Residues of the EA/APP/PP composites were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that the appropriate EA/APP mass ratio can fully interact and lock more chemical constituents containing carbon and nitrogen in the residue, thereby resulting in the formation of a dense, compact, and intumescent char layer. This char layer exerted a condensed-phase flame-retardant effect on EA/APP/PP composites. Read more : click here

HBCDD consortium submits REACH authorisation dossier to ECHA

Expanded polystyrene (EPS) raw material manufacturers, participating in the hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) authorisation consortium successfully submitted an application for authorisation to the European Chemicals Agency by the 21 February deadline. Project managed by ReachCentrum with the technical support of PFA Ltd and eftec, submission occurred to obtain an extension of the use of HBCDD as a flame retardant in EPS insulation in the EU.

The consortium aim is to obtain an authorisation for the continued safe use of HBCDD in EPS, until a valid alternative is commercially available in adequate quantities, together with the necessary technical and certification approvals. Members want to ensure that their customers and related end users have a continued steady supply for use of flame retarded EPS for building insulation material. The EPS raw material producers are committed to changing from HBCDD to an alternative as soon as possible, within legal deadlines and satisfying technical approvals.File:Hexabromocyclododecane.svg

Sufficient supply of building insulation materials is crucial for the European Union to achieve its goals of energy efficiency and a reduced carbon footprint by appropriate insulation of new buildings and by renovation of existing buildings. EPS has been used broadly for this application for decades and is present in the vast majority of Europe’s buildings. HBCDD is still the main, commercially available flame retardant for EPS. Flame retardant suppliers have started production of commercial quantities of alternative materials and the first applications in insulation products are being made available in the EU during 2014. Not all announced capacity for the HBCDD alternatives is currently on stream, however, meaning delays in the production development and technical approvals cannot be excluded. Members of the consortium are concerned that fully approved alternative flame retardants may not be available in sufficient commercial quantities before August 2015. Members are asking the EU for additional time to allow for a smooth market transition from HBCDD.

Background: HBCDD in buildings

One of the uses of HBCDD is as a flame retardant in EPS in buildings. HBCDD (CAS# 25637-99-4) is placed on Annex XIV of REACH, indicating that after the sunset date (21 August 2015, Official Journal of the European Union L49/52, dated 24.2.2011) the use of HBCDD in any application is prohibited unless the use in an application is granted. The application for authorisation of HBCDD in a specific use had to be submitted to ECHA at the latest by February 21, 2014.

Consortium members

The eight submitting members of the consortium, set up at the beginning of 2013, are: Ineos Styrenics, Monotez S.A., StyroChem Finland Oy, Sunpor Kunststoff GmbH Austria, Synbra Technology B.V., Synthos S.A, Unipol Holland B.V., Versalis S.p.A. These companies submitted jointly 13 applications for two uses.

Contact Francesca Furlan, ReachCentrum, at or on +32.2.6767425.

Recycling of waste poly(ethylene terephthalate) into flame-retardant rigid polyurethane foams

This  paper wes published in Journal of Applied Polymer Science , 3 MAY 2014.


Waste poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) textiles were effectively chemical recycling into flame-retardant rigid polyurethane foams (PUFs). The PET textile wastes were glycolytically depolymerized to bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) by excess ethylene glycol as depolymerizing agent and zinc acetate dihydrate as catalyst. The PUFs were produced from BHET and polymeric methane diphenyl diisocyanate. The structures of BHET and PUFs were identified by FTIR spectra. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) of the PUFs (≥23.27%) was higher than that of common PUFs (16–18%), because the aromatic substituent in the depolymerized products improved the flame retardance. To improve the LOI of the PUFs, dimethyl methylphosphonate doped PUFs (DMMP-PUFs) were produced. The LOI of DMMP-PUFs was approached to 27.69% with the increasing of the doped DMMP. The influences of the flame retardant on the foams density, porosity, and compression properties were studied. Furthermore, the influences of foaming agent, catalyst, and flame retardant on the flame retardation were also investigated.

Flame retardant polymer/layered double hydroxide nanocomposites

This  paper wes published in J. Mater. Chem. A, 2014.


Recently, there has been rapid growth in research related to the synthesis and application of flame retardant polymer–layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites. In order to outline the potential and to promote further developments in the field we have prepared a critical review of the most recent progress in the area. We discuss the techniques and indices (e.g. micro calorimetery, limiting oxygen index, cone calorimetry and UL-94) for evaluating the flame retardant properties. The flame retardant mechanism of LDHs, the types of polymers studied, the effect of LDH chemical composition and the synergistic effect with other fire retardants are reviewed. It is hoped that this review will not only introduce the synthesis, characterisation and application of polymer–LDH nanocomposites for flame retardancy, but also prompt new discussion on the use of LDH dispersions in polymer-based materials.

Graphical abstract: Flame retardant polymer/layered double hydroxide nanocomposites

Compatibilizing effect of β-cyclodextrin in RDP/phosphorus-containing polyacrylate composite emulsion and its synergism on the flame retardancy of the latex film

This article was published in Progress in Organic Coatings,


Resorcinol bis (diphenyl phosphate)/β-cyclodextrin/phosphorus-containing polyacrylate (RDP/β-CD/P-PA)  composite emulsion was prepared by using β-CD as a compatibilizer. The flame retardancy of the composite latex film was investigated by microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of the composite latex films were also studied and a possible compatibilizing mechanism was proposed. The results showed that the mechanical properties and flame retardancy of the RDP/β-CD/P-PA composite latex film were enhanced compared to the RDP/P-PA latex film. When the β-CD content increased from 0 to 10 wt%, the pendulum hardness of the RDP/β-CD/P-PA composite latex film increased from 0.18 to 0.54, and the peak heat release rate decreased from 382.1 to 311.9 W/g. TGA and MCC results demonstrated that both the char residual and the quality of the char formation were improved by the introduction of β-CD.


Innovative and Sustainable Flame Retardants in Building and Construction

Building products need to meet a variety of performance requirements. Although there are few fire performance requirements for building products in one-family dwellings, such requirements are significant for commercial, industrial, and multi-family buildings. Depending on the type of materials and intended application, specific fire performance properties of building materials are tested by use of different test methods. When designing a building a very important consideration is how it will behave in fire and ensure the elements of structure will not collapse but remain standing or hold back the fire for a prescribed time. The building regulations stipulate the rules and the degree of fire resistance of the elements of structure. Read more: click here

Sans titre

Source: Pinfa

PolyOne Launches Moisture-Cured ECCOH™ XLS for Non-Halogen Wire & Cable Applications


PolyOne Corporation (NYSE: POL), a premier global provider of specialized polymer materials, services and solutions, today announced the launch of ECCOH XLS low smoke and fume, non-halogen formulation for flame retardant wire and cable applications. This new moisture-cured solution from PolyOne helps manufacturers improve supply chain logistics to streamline manufacturing and optimize performance.

With the introduction of moisture-cured ECCOH XLS technology, wire and cable manufacturers can now choose the most cost-effective technology for specific production environments when selecting a low smoke and fume, non-halogen composition:

  • Dry silane
  • E-beam irradiation
  • Moisture cure

ECCOH XLS enables manufacturers to efficiently process a non-halogenated, flame-retardant material without capital investment in extra equipment or adding steps to complete crosslinking. The new offering was developed for applications including low-voltage power cables for building and construction use and specialty wire and cable for marine environments.

With superior shelf life, ECCOH XLS flame-retardant material for wire and cable jacketing (sheathing) and insulation avoids logistics concerns common with other crosslinking methods. The new material can be cured in a water bath as part of a processing line, or within ten days at ambient temperature regardless of humidity levels, and offers excellent processing and flame retardant performance. 

Source: PolyOne

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