Fire Resistance Lower FRs loading with Intumescent materials

Flammability behaviour of wood and a review of the methods for its reduction

Authors: Laura Anne Lowden and Terence Richard Hull
Wood is one of the most sustainable, aesthetically pleasing and environmentally benign materials. Not only is wood often an integral part of structures, it is also the main source of furnishings found in homes, schools, and offices around the world. The often inevitable hazards of…pdf: click here


Global Flame Retardant Chemicals Market Outlook (2014-2022)

The Global Market for Flame Retardant Chemicals Market is valued at $6.1 billion in 2014 and is expected to reach $14.32 billion by 2022 at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 11.25%. The factors that drive the market include high demand from current & emerging applications, emerging economies and advancement in technology. Whereas increasing costs and strong government regulations are major restraints of the market. Construction and automotive industry and other major end-user industries of flame retardant chemicals are on a boom globally.

Flame Retardant Chemicals market is segmented by type, by product, by application, by end-user and by geography. Depending on the various types, market is segmented into Aluminum Hydroxide, Brominated Flame, Chlorinated and Organo Phosphorous. Based on the Products, it is segregated as Wood/Paper, Textiles, Plastics, Coatings/Paints and Decorations/Others. Based on the Applications, it is classified into Polystyrene, Polyolefins and Polyvinyl Chloride. Based on End-users, it is categorized as Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, Polyethylene, Polycarbonates and Polypropylene. By geography, the market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World. Asia-Pacific accounts the largest share in the market, followed by North-America.

The key players in the Flame Retardant Chemicals market include Akzo Nobel Polymer Chemicals LLC, Clariant AG, Martinswerk GmbH, DIC Corporation, Dover Chemical Corporation, Royal DSM NV, ICL Industrial Products, Supresta LLC, Synalloy Corporation and The Dow Chemical Company. Read more: click here


Do Flame Retardants Work?

In this video, leading researchers from the BCC Research Annual Conference on Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Polymeric Materials talk about the role of flame retardants.

Significant reduction of brominated flame retardants emmissions in europe

Significant reduction of brominated flame retardants emmissions in europe

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Develop a process to separate brominated flame retardants from WEEE polymers

Final Report


This final report summarises the practical trials and process design work conducted during a three phase project funded by WRAP to develop a process to separate brominated flame retardants (BFRs) from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) polymers.
The work shows that the modified Creasolv1 process for extraction of brominated flame retardants from WEEE polymers has potential to be commercially viable in the UK context at a throughput of 10,000te/year. The Creasolv process was originally developed by Fraunhofer IVV in Germany and has been modified further in the course of this project in collaboration with Fraunhofer IVV.
The Creasolv process will remove most BFR types from styrenic WEEE polymers. Work done for this project has shown that styrenic polymers constitute over half of collectable WEEE polymers and that they contain the great majority of the BFRs found in WEEE thermoplastics. It is has not been tested with the newer BFR types such as brominated epoxy oligomers because these are not yet found in significant quantities in real WEEE….Read more Sans titre 2

Emerging “new” Brominated flame retardants in flame retarded products and the environment

Current State of Knowledge and Monitoring requirements

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Emerging “new” Brominated flame retardants in flame retarded products and the environment

Brominated flame retardants are a group of chemicals that inhibit combustion. They are extensively used in electrical and electronic equipment, transport equipment, building materials, paint and insulation foams. However, many of the brominated flame retardants have undesirable effects on the environment and on human health. Therefore it is a nationnal target to substantially reduce the release of five prioritized brominated flame retardants before 2010 and completely eliminate the discharge of these five substances before 2020. The overall aim of this study is to perform a review of the current state of the knowledge on emerging “new” brominated flame retardants. This includes the use of the selected substances, environmental levels, data on toxicity and ecotoxicity, potential to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate in the food web, analytical possibilities, potential for long range transport and their persistence in the environment. Further, this information is used to select compounds that based on the current knowledge can be relevant for further monitoring.

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DOPO-VTS-based coatings in the realm of fire retardants for cotton textile

This article was published in Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 28 JAN 2015


The work elucidates the feasibility of incorporation of phosphorus-silicon containing fire retardant (10-(2-trimethoxysilyl-ethyl)-9-hydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide [DOPO-VTS]) into nanosol coating solutions by cohydrolysis cocondensation reaction of DOPO-VTS with tetraethoxysilane precursor (TEOS). Impregnation of cotton with the organophosphorus silane in a form of nanosol dispersion afforded better fire retardancy of such samples compared to pure DOPO or TEOS-treated cotton indicating synergism between phosphorus and silicon containing species in a condensed phase. The detailed analysis by TGA-MS and SEM pointed to the fact that DOPO-VTS acts as a promoter of cotton degradation which, in turn, results in acceleration of the charring process and formation of compact char in contrast to TEOS-treated samples. Further analysis of the char by XPS confirmed high content of carbonaceous residue in the case of DOPO-VTS-treated samples while mainly siliceous component was left in the char in case of cotton treated with TEOS. Standard flammability test (EN ISO 15025:2008) additionally confirmed the absence of smoldering and better overall fire performance of the DOPO-VTS samples in contrast to TEOS-treated samples.

A Green and Renewable Intumescent Flame Retardant System for Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate

This paper was published in Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. journal: 

Chitosan/Phytic Acid Polyelectrolyte Complex: A Green and Renewable Intumescent Flame Retardant System for Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer


We describe the preparation and characterization of a green and renewable polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) containing phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon elements, based on the ionic complexation between chitosan and phytic acid. Introduction of this PEC to ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) leads to an improvement of the flame retardancy. As for the EVA/PEC composites with 20.0 wt % of PEC (EVA/20PEC), the char residue at 600 oC is 12 wt % higher than that of the pristine EVA under nitrogen atmosphere. Compared to the pristine EVA, the peak heat release rate and total heat release of EVA/20PEC show 249 W g-1 and 5.6 kJ g-1 decreases, respectively. The char residue of EVA/20PEC is full and compact, demonstrating excellent intumescent effect. Introduction of this PEC also contributes to a slight increase of the Young’s modulus while maintains the excellent ductility. This work provides a new approach for the development of environmentally friendly intumescent flame retardant system.

BASF introduces improved flame retardant grade for E&E applications

A flame-retardant and glass fiber-reinforced polyamide (PA), the new Ultramid A3U42G6, is now part of BASF’s plastics portfolio, as per the company’s statement.
This light colorable grade features easy processing with reduced deposit formation and corrosivity. Thus, it increases the durability of plasticizing units and injection molds and helps reducing production stoppages due to service and maintenance.
The new material meets UL 94 requirements for the V-0 flammability class at wall thicknesses as low as 0.4 millimeters. Its thermal ageing resistance has been considerably improved over that of well-known glass fiber-filled polyamide grades. With an RTI for dielectric strength (UL 746B) of 140 C at a wall thickness of 0.4 millimeters and even 150 C at thicknesses starting at 0.75 millimeters, the new Ultramid A3U42G6 is especially well suited for use at higher temperatures.

The new flame retardant system shows no migration effects and thus ensures component surfaces of higher quality. It also contains no halogen or antimony components. This allows favorable smoke density and toxicity values to be attained and also complies with the WEEE and ROHS directives.

Reinforced with 30% glass fibers, Ultramid A3U42G6 possesses the good mechanical properties typical of polyamides, and can be marked by laser, when colored black. This new grade is especially suitable for connectors and thermally stressed industrial automation applications such as switchgears and contactors…


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