An Alternatives Assessment for the Flame Retardant DecaBDE-FINAL REPORT/January 2014

Download pdf document here : Report

Flammability and Thermal Stability of Cross-linked Polyethylene

Article- Publication Date: January 28, 2014-  Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research

Effect of Functionalized Graphene Oxide with Hyper-branched Flame Retardant on Flammability and Thermal Stability of Cross-linked Polyethylene


In this work, GO was functionalized by a hyper-branched flame retardant, which was synthesized by the reaction of N-aminoethyl piperazine and di(acryloyloxyethyl)methylphosphonate. Subsequently, the resultant functionalized GO (FGO) was incorporated into the cross linked polyethylene (XLPE) to enhance the flame retardancy of the matrix. TEM images indicated that FGO exhibited uniform dispersion in XLPE matrix and strong adhesion with the matrix by cross-linking, which improved barrier effect due to reduced heat release and the free radical transfer between the matrix and graphene nano-sheets. The incorporation of FGO into XLPE matrix endowed polymer composites with flame retardancy and thermal stability. In addition, the homogeneous dispersion of functionalized GO with hyper-branched flame retardant in the polymer matrix improved the anti-oxidation and mechanical properties of XLPE-FGO nanocomposites compared to the XLPE-GO samples, demonstrated through the oxidative induction temperature and time test, oven aging test and mechanical test. Read more: here

Report – Non-Halogenated Flame Retardants Market – Growth and Forecast to 2018

Reuters- 21.01.2014 :

The demand for non-halogenated flame retardants is expected to be majorly driven by growing environmental concerns regarding halogenated flame retardants. Non-halogenated flame retardants are environment friendly and certain non-halogenated flame retardants are as efficient as halogenated flame retardants.

This study covers the global non-halogenated flame retardant market for polymers. Flame retardants are used as additives in polymers to increase fire resistance in case of ignition or fire accidents. Owing to the high risk of fire accidents related with high usage of polymers in end-use industries such as construction, electrical and transportation, non-halogenated flame retardants are expected to have high demand in the near future. The market is segmented based on product types aluminum hydroxide (ATH), phosphorus based non-halogenated flame retardants and others (including nitrogen based flame retardants, magnesium hydroxide and others).

The report analyzes impacts of key market drivers and restraints on the global n market for the next five years. Increasing polymer usage in numerous industries is leading to high demand for flame retardant polymers, which is expected to drive the market for non-halogenated flame retardants. High loading levels and drawbacks in processability of non-halogenated flame retardants are expected to hinder the market growth in the coming years.

The market is also segmented in terms of end use industries and the study provides analysis and forecast of all key industries in the market. Construction, electrical, transportation, textile, furniture are major industries having applications of non-halogenated flame retardant polymers. In terms of application, the market is segmented into different polymers that are used in the end use industry. The report estimates and forecasts the global market of non-halogenated flame retardants for different polymers on the basis of volume (kilo tons) and revenue (USD million).

The study consists of value chain analysis for complete and better understanding of the market. The report also covers Porter’s five force model that analyzes market competition. The report provides analysis of the non-halogenated flame retardant market by various geographies – North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Rest of the World (RoW).

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Layered Security: Carbon Nanotubes Promise Improved Flame-Resistant Coating

NIST Tech Beat:

Using an approach akin to assembling a club sandwich at the nanoscale, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) researchers have succeeded in crafting a uniform, multi-walled carbon-nanotube-based coating that greatly reduces the flammability of foam commonly used in upholstered furniture and other soft furnishings.

The flammability of the nanotube-coated polyurethane foam was reduced 35 percent compared with untreated foam. As important, the coating prevented melting and pooling of the foam, which generates additional flames that are a major contributor to the spread of fires.

Nationwide, fires in which upholstered furniture is the first item ignited account for about 6,700 home fires annually and result in 480 civilian deaths, or almost 20 percent of home fire deaths between 2006 and 2010, according to the National Fire Protection Association.

The innovative NIST technique squeezes nanotubes between two everyday polymers and stacks four of these trilayers on top of each other. The result is a plastic-like coating that is thinner than one-hundredth the diameter of human hair and has flame-inhibiting nanotubes distributed evenly throughout.

The brainchild of NIST materials scientists Yeon Seok Kim and Rick Davis, the fabrication method is described in the January 2014 issue of Thin Solid Films.*

Kim and Davis write that the technique can be used with a variety of types of nanoparticles to improve the quality of surface coatings for diverse applications.

The pair experimented with a variety of layer-by-layer coating methods before arriving at their triple-decker approach. All had failed to meet their three key objectives: entire coverage of the foam’s porous surface, uniform distribution of the nanotubes, and the practicality of the method. Inmost of these trials, the nanotubes—cylinders of carbon atoms resembling rolls of chicken wire—did not adhere strongly to the foam surface.

So, Kim and Davis opted to doctor the nanotubes themselves, borrowing a technique often used in cell culture to make DNA molecules stickier. The method attached nitrogen-containing molecules—called amine groups—to the nanotube exteriors.

This step proved critical: The doctored nanotubes were uniformly distributed and clung tenaciously to the polymer layers above and below. As a result, the coating fully exploits the nanotubes’ rapid heat-dissipating capability.

Gram for gram, the resulting coating confers much greater resistance to ignition and burning than achieved with the brominated flame retardants commonly used to treat soft furnishings today. As important, says Davis, a “protective char layer” forms when the nanotube-coated foam is exposed to extreme heat, creating a barrier that prevents the formation of melt pools.

“This kind of technology has the potential to reduce the fire threat associated with burning soft furniture in homes by about a third,” Davis says.

Y.S. Kim and R. Davis. Multi-walled carbon nanotube layer-by-layer coatings with a trilayer structure to reduce foam flammability. Thin Solid Films 550 (2014) 184-189.


Comparison of HFFR Jacket Compound Solutions: Polyolefin vs. TPE

The wire and cable industry continues to research and develop new plastics materials that are halogen-free, flame retardant, and produce low acid gas and smoke generation during combustion. Metal hydrate filled polyolefins (MHPOs) are an important compound technology that meet these requirements, but due to the high flame retardant concentrations required to achieve high flame test performance, they are high density, possess high melt viscosities which make them challenging to process, and exhibit low elongations at break.

This paper compares the performance of a commercial MHPO compound to that of two new thermoplastic elastomer compounds, each formulated with a different intumescent flame retardant system (IFR-TPEs). Test results show that both new grades pass the UL-1581 VW-1 and Cable Flame tests on 18 AWG wire, they exhibit high elongation at break, low density and low melt viscosity. Download pdf 


Effects of alpha-zirconium phosphate on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of transparent intumescent fire protective coating

This article was published in Materials Research Bulletin.


Organophilic alpha-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) was used to improve the thermal and fire retardant behaviors of the phenyl di(acryloyloxyethyl)phosphate (PDHA)-triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA)-2-phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) (PDHA-TGICA-PHEA) coating. The morphology of nanocomposite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of OZrP on the flame retardancy, thermal stability, fireproofing time and char formation of the coatings was investigated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that by adding OZrP, the peak heat release rate and total heat of combustion were significantly reduced. The highest improvement was achieved with 0.5 wt% OZrP. XPS analysis indicated that the performance of anti-oxidation of the coating was improved with the addition of OZrP, and SEM images showed that a good synergistic effect was obtained through a ceramic-like layer produced by OZrP covered on the surface of char.

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