A NEW BOOK: Update on Flame Retardant Textiles

This book describes the progress in flame retardancy of both natural and synthetic fibres/fabrics moving from the traditional approaches (back-coating techniques), current chemical solutions (P-, N-, S-, B- based flame retardants) to the novel up-to-date strategies (deposition and/or assembly of architectures, plasma treatments, sol-gel processes).

More specifically, the fundamental aspects, the chemistry of current flame retardant textile technologies including back-coating process and the obtained improvements are thoroughly reviewed, taking into account the detrimental environmental effects due to the use of halogen-based additives such as bromine derivatives.

Then, an overview of the chemical development of flame retardant strategies based on halogen-free compounds is summarized.

The third part of the book is devoted to a description of the up-to-date innovative solutions, based on nanotechnology. The surface deposition of coatings having a different chemical structure, is highlighted in detail.

To this aim, the effect of (nano)architectures derived from (nano)particle adsorption, plasma deposition/grafting, layer by layer assembly, sol-gel treatments on fibres/fabrics is thoroughly discussed.

Table of content:

1 Burning Hazards of Textiles and Terminology
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Hazards of Burning Textiles
1.3 Glossary of Terms
1.4 Hazard Assessment and Testing Methodologies for Flame Retardance References

2 Fundamental Aspects of Flame Retardancy
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Thermal Degradation of Polymers
2.3 Thermo-oxidative Degradation of Polymers
2.4 Degradation of Individual Fibre-forming Polymer Types
2.4.1 Natural Fibre-forming Polymers
2.4.1.1 Cellulose
2.4.1.2 Protein Fibre-forming Polymers
2.4.2 Thermoplastic Fibre-forming Polymers
2.4.2.1 Polyolefins
2.4.2.2 Aliphatic Polyamides (Nylons)
2.4.2.3 Polyesters
2.4.3 High Temperature-resistant Fibre-forming Polymers
2.5 Polymer Combustion
2.6 Influence of Polymer Degradation on Subsequent Combustion
2.7 Mechanisms of Flame Retardancy
2.7.1 Chemical and Physical Mechanisms
2.7.2 Retardant Additive and Interactive Effects
2.7.3 Quantification of Synergism
2.7.4 Char Formation
2.7.5 Smoke, Fumes and Combustion Gases
2.8 Effect of Fabric and Yarn Structures References

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Environment and Human Health, Inc.’s New Flame-Retardant Report –

Stamfordplus:

Environment and Human Health, Inc. (EHHI), an organization of physicians and public health professionals, is releasing its research report calling for state and federal governments to institute new policies to protect the public from flame-retardant exposures. Flame-retardants are now ubiquitous in our environment. They are found in almost all consumer products and pose health risks to fetuses, infants, children and the human population as a whole.

The report closely examines the health risks that flame-retardants pose to the general population and recommends sweeping policy changes to protect the public. The report examines the history of flame-retardants and demonstrates the enormous scope of the problem, noting that flame-retardants can now be found in the bodies of polar bears and whales, showing how far they have spread.

John Wargo, Ph.D., first author of the report and the Tweedy-Ordway Professor of Environmental Health and Political Science at Yale University, said, “Synthetic flame-retardants can now be found in the tissues of most people in the United States. Many flame-retardants are persistent and bioaccumulate in our bodies. Flame-retardants are not required to undergo health and environmental testing, and they are not required to be labeled on the products that contain them. Because exposures to flame-retardants carry health risks, they should only be used when the risk of fire outweighs the risk from flame-retardant exposures. When risk from fire is high, such as in airplanes, then the use of flame-retardants is warranted; when the risk from fire is low, flame-retardants should not be used.”

The history of flame-retardant use in the United States is a story of substituting one dangerous flame-retardant for another. The country lived through decades when asbestos was used as a fire-retardant. Then when asbestos was proven too dangerous to be used, the country moved over to PCBs, and five decades later, when PCBs were deemed too dangerous for use, the country moved on to chlorinated and brominated flame-retardants… Read more: source: click here

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