3rd ECOFRAM conference


The topics of the event will be the following:

Sustainable FR additives

Biobased and biodegradable FR polymers and composites

Global life cycle approaches

Fire safety regulation and ecological issues

For more information: click here

Matrix matters: Hyperbranched flame retardants in aliphatic and aromatic epoxy resins

Published 5 October 2019 in Polymer Degradation and Stability


We synthesized a library of phosphorus-based flame retardants (phosphates and phosphoramides of low and high molar mass) and investigated their behavior in two epoxy resins (one aliphatic and one aromatic). The pyrolytic and burning behavior of the two resins (via TGA, TG-FTIR, Hot stage FTIR, Py-GC/MS, PCFC, DSC, LOI, UL-94, Cone calorimeter) are analyzed and compared to the results of flame retardant (FR)-containing composites. A decomposition pathway incorporating the identified modes of action and known chemical mechanisms is proposed. The overlap of decomposition temperature (Tdec) ranges of matrix and FR determines the efficacy of the system. Low molar mass FRs strongly impact material properties like Tg but are very reactive, and high molar mass variants are more thermally stable. Varying P–O and P–N content of the FR affects decomposition, but the chemical structure of the matrix also guides FR behavior. Thus, phosphates afford lower fire load and heat release in aliphatic epoxy resins, and phosphoramides can act as additives in an aromatic matrix or a reactive FRs in aliphatic ones. The chemical structure and the structure-property relationship of both FR and matrix are central to FR performance and must be viewed not as two separate but as one codependent system.


Thermal Stability and Flammability Behavior of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) Based Composites

Published: 11 July 2019,  for pdf format: click here


A series of samples based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) containing five different additives were prepared and their thermal stability and flammability were discussed. The samples first underwent flammability screening by using Pyrolysis Combustion Flow Calorimeter (PCFC) analyses. Then, four samples were selected for further investigations. PHB composites containing sepiolite (Sep.) inorganic nanofiller, and also organic ammonium polyphosphate (APP) were examined for flammability and thermal behavior using PCFC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), flame test, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analyses. Moreover, burning behavior of samples were captured on a digital camera to give a deeper sense of their flammability character for comparison.


The results revealed a significant improvement of flammability and thermal stability of composites, particularly in the presence of sepiolite with respect to the value obtained for unfilled PHB. Regarding TGA results, the char residue yield was increased to ca. 20.0 wt.% in the presence of sepiolite, while 0.0 wt.% was observed for PHB. PCFC measurements uncovered higher performance of PHB-Sep. sample as signaled by 40% reduction in the peak of heat release rate with respect to PHB. According to observations, PHB-Sep. sample showed non-dripping behavior with high capacity of charring in the presence of Sep. in a vertical flame test. Read more: click here




Speciale Issue-Flame retardants in Composites Part B: Engineering

FR special issue : please click here

Composites Part B: Engineeringhas recently identified flame retardants and flame-retardant polymer/composites as one of its 20 focused topics for the journal and launched a speciale issue. This Special Issue is purposely organised to announce this decision. We want our flame retardantsresearch community tobeaware that Composites Part B: Engineeringis now dedicated to publishingthe latest progress on flame retardants and flame-retardant polymer composites.

For more information: : please click here


Wood & Fire Safety 2020 Conference


The 9th International Scientific Conference Wood & Fire Safety 2020 (WFS 2020) will be held as usual at the Hotel Patria, Strbske Pleso, Slovakia, May 3-6, 2020.

More information: http://wfs2020.sk


Biodegradable polyester thin films and coatings in the line of fire: the time of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)?

Published in “Progress in Organic Coatings”


From sustainability standpoint, bio-based resins are of crucial importance nowadays rather than fossil-based resins, but the former suffers from low flame retardancy. Bio-based thin films and coatings are in their early stage of development; hence, a long way must be paved to make them resistant against flame/fire. Polylactic acid (PLA)-based biocompatible (timesand some biodegradable) coatings have been in the core of attention, but even among available works one can rarely find a comprehensive report on flame retardancy of PLA thin films and coatings. Attention should also be paid to the fact that first-generation biodegradable polyesters, PLAs, are not fully biodegradable. Moreover, synthesis of PLAs is hooked on crop consumption. On the other hand, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with more or less similar structure, but different physical properties due to their lower glass transition temperature compared with PLAs, are known as the second-generation of bio-polyester. Overall, we highlight here that PHAs might be a better candidate for thin film manufacturing thanks to their synthesis by microorganism as well as significant variability of their microstructure that provides a wide range of properties, and notably their full biodegradability compared with PLAs. Though mass production of PHAs is not cost-effective these days and their market just entered into the growth phase, we suggest study on flame retardancy of PHA-based resins, thin films, and coatings for near future. This short communication deals with the current status and future ahead of PHA-based flame retardant thin films and coatings.

Read more: click here



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